Gustavo Inheta Baggio Human Sciences centro of the Universidade são de Sagrado coração – USC - Bauru (SP), Brazil. Simone rocha de Vasconcellos Hage Department that Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology of ns Bauru college of Dentistry, universidade de São paul – USP - Bauru (SP), Brazil.

Você está assistindo: Meu cachorro foi mordido por um rato


*Correspondence address: Simone rocha de Vasconcellos Hage departamento de Fonoaudiologia, faculdades de Odontologia de Bauru, universidade de São pólo – USP caminho Dr. Otávio pine Brisolla, nº 9-75, aldeia Nova bairros Universitária, Bauru (SP), Brazil, CEP: 17012-901. E-mail: simonehage
RESUMO

Objetivo

Realizar der tradução e a ajustamento cultural a partir de Teste de Sintaxe de Aguado (TSA) para a língua portuguesa do brasil de acordo com a realidade estudo da linguagem e cultural do país.

Método

O TSA avalia o desenvolve morfossintático de crianças entrou 3 e 7 anos, quanto é este à compreensão e expressão de modelo de orações, pronomes, voices verbais, comparações, preposições e verbos quanto à desinência de número, regime e tempo. Emprego processo de tradução e ajustamento cultural seguiu quatro estágios: 1) ereção de dois traduções literais; 2) construir de borda síntese consensual; 3) retrotradução; e 4) confirme da equivalência entrada as traduções iniciais e together retrotraduções que culminaram na edição final do teste.

Resultados

O processo de ajustamento cultural são de instrumento para ministérios Português indicou que sim equivalência e reconciliação dos artigo traduzidos, equivalência semântica principalmente total entrou as dois traduções e ausente de dificuldade consistentes de tradução.

Conclusão

O exame TSA adquirindo traduzido e adaptar para a língua português falada no decorrer Brasil, constituindo-se durante primeiro passo para naquela validação e normatização a partir de instrumento.

DescritoresLinguagem Infantil; desenvolve da Linguagem; certificado de Linguagem; Tradução; adaptar Transcultural


ABSTRACT

Purpose

To perform a translation and cultural adaptation of the Aguado Syntax test (AST) into Brazilian Portuguese considering the linguistic e cultural reality of a language.

Methods

The AST assesses a early morphosyntactic advancement in children aged 3 come 7 in regards to understanding and expression that various varieties of frameworks such as sentences, pronouns, linguistic voices, comparisons, prepositions and verbal desinence regarding number, mode and tense. A process the translation e cultural adaptation complied with four steps: 1) ready of dois translations; 2) synthesis of consensual translations; 3) backtranslation; and 4) confirmation of equivalence between ns initial translations e backtranslations that led to the final translated version.

Results

The whole procedure of translation e cultural adaptation revealed the presence of equivalence e reconciliation of ns translated items e an almost complete semantic equivalence between ns two translations e the absence of continual translation difficulties.

Conclusion

The AST foi ~ translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese, constituting the first step in the direction of validation e standardization of ns test.

KeywordsChild Language; Language Development; Language Tests; Translation; culturais Adaptation


arrival

The paucity of standardized clinical and assessment investigation instrumento in ns language advance field is noteworthy in Brazil. While nations such as a United States, Spain, France, Argentina, e Chile own an expressive number of tests and protocols to assess language breakthrough in different açao ranges, in Brazil this number is tho restricted, also when considering the notorious development made in a last decades. If a number the language assessment procedures is scarce in general, it deserve to be stated that it is virtually nonexistent when ns investigation process involves morphosyntax.

From a linguistic standpoint based on syntagmatic e paradigmatic axes, morphology is the aprender of diverted vocabulary, e syntax analyses ns combination in between words(11 Kehdi V. Der sintaxe em Mattoso Câmara. DELTA. 2004;20(spe):105-127.). Thus, morphosyntax implies ns knowledge of speaker regarding ns intern structure of a words e combination rules of unit volume (syntagmas) in clauses. As far as it is known, only the MLU - Mean length Utterance(22 brown R. A first language. Cambridge: Harvard universidade Press; 1973.) has actually been offered in researches around morphosyntactic evaluate in Brazil. MLU is der measure that language, whose key aim is come obtain data about the atuação of crianças with typical language breakthrough in morphologic e syntactic aspects e was offered in research studies of crianças with interaction disorders(33 Marques SF, Limongi SCO. Mean length utterance (MLU) as a measure of language breakthrough of crianças with under Syndrome. J Soc Bras Fonoaudiol. 2011;23(2):152-7. PMid:21829931. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2179-64912011000200012. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2179-64912011... ,44 Carvalho AMA, Befi-Lopes DM, Limongi SCO. Mean length utterance in Brazilian children: der comparative aprender between under syndrome, details language impairment, e typical language development. CoDAS. 2014;26(3):201-7. PMid:25118915. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2317-1782/201420140516. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2317-1782/2014... ). Ns morphosyntactic evaluate of crianças with language alterations obtain low fist in Brazil, since it is not feasible to evaluate this element in der credible caminho in ns Brazilian Portuguese language. Thus, investing greatly in this underprivileged área of language evaluate is completely important e this study aims to add to it. This pesquisar was carried lado de fora in order to perform the translation and cultural etymological adaptation of Aguado Syntax Test right into Brazilian Portuguese.

approaches

The instrument

The Aguado Syntax check (AST)(55 Aguado G. El desarrollo de la morfosintaxis en el niño: manual de evaluación del TSA. Madrid: CEPE; 1989.) is naquela Spanish instrument that verifies the syntactic aspects of the language in crianças with periods ranging a partir de 3 come 7. It is composed of dois booklets, uma containing encontro on ns syntactic breakthrough in children up to 3 years of lei and in crianças with periods ranging são de 3 come 7, as well as featuring instructions for the application and the standardization of a test in Spanish. The second booklet is composed by set of numbers that are used for the verification of particular grammatical structures. A application sheet consists of 36 items ao the verification of construction comprehension e 34 items para the confirmation of syntactic expression, each artigo having dois possibilities the response. Therefore, the rude score of ns test involves 72 exactly responses in the comprehension aspect and 68 in a expression aspect.

The grammatical frameworks assessed in both ns comprehension e expression aspects involve ns analysis of sentences containing: interrogative e negative sentences; the imperative mood; voz (active and passive); articles; demonstrative, possessive, indefinite, an individual (subject and object), interrogative and relative pronouns; verbal voices; comparisons; prepositions; e verbal desinence regarding number, mode e tense. Ns phrases the contain a aforementioned grammatical structures were ns object of study of this work and were submitted to translation, backtranslation, e preparation porque o an adapted duram version of ns test. The handmade containing the application instructions for the test was also analyzed into Brazilian Portuguese, but it revealed no decorrer need for cultural adaptation together it features straightforward instructions organized specifically to guide e control the conduct of the examiner.

The check application consists of ns following: in a comprehension aspect, 36 sheets ser estar presented include four foto each, where ns child must concertos one that corresponds to a phrase claimed by a examiner. In a expression aspect, there estão 29 sheets containing two pictures each. In every assessed item, a child listens to two phrases, 1 after ns other, without having previous access to any of the pictures. Automatically after speak them, ns examiner shows the snapshot that synchronizes to ns phrase marked com an asterisk. That is expected a partir de the boy to repeat a phrase. Then, a other picture is shown, therefore that ns child deserve to produce ns following elocution.

From agenda 30 on, in a expression aspect, the graphic coisas ends e the examiner must lead naquela conversation with the child, in stimulate to acquire responses entailing compound sentences com certain linguistic morphemes. In this conversation, ns examiner comment about the weather during the application (cold/heat/rain). Em ~ items 30 come 34, the examiner tells ns child phrases the promptly prevent in dois bars, finishing with a tone the ellipsis, which invites ns child to manter on talking. In a items in which ns two bars happen in dois distinct areas of a phrase, a examiner will, in ~ first, tell ns child the phrase until the first two bars, to watch if ns child spontaneously uses the connective particle to link the ideas. If there is no expected performance, the examiner will need to repeat ns stimulus-phrase until ns second dois bars.

This is not around training the child in ns verbal morphemes we intend come assess, but rather do him conscious of what paragraph conclusion we expect from him. To illustrate e example, that is understood that, in general, if us start naquela phrase with der comment about ns weather, that should fim with an additional comment about a necessity to put on or pegue off part certain species of clothes.

The translation and linguistic adaptation process

For a process of translation e cultural adaptation, the methodology defined by Beaton et al.(66 Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, ferraz MB. Guidelines porque o the procedure of cross-cultural adaptation the selfreport measures. Spine. 2000;25(24):3186-91. PMid:11124735. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-20001... ) was adopted. In stage 1 of a translation, 2 initial translations, referred to as T1 and T2 to be performed through qualified professionals. In this phase, as part of a translation process, and in addition to the para a letra translation the the originais content, the adaptation (cultural/linguistic) by means of translation methods occurred, considering ns technical procedures of translation propose by Barbosa(77 Barbosa H. Procedimento técnicos da tradução: uma novo proposta. 2. Ed. Campinas: Pontes; 2004.). Every item from the test solution sheet ser estar analyzed e adapted accordingly. Dois grammatical and semantic comparisons were performed, assessing a meaning of the words in each item, in order come verify clarity aspects e issues of a instrument. At this stage, ns two translations allowed porque o the detection of distinctions in interpretation of probably ambiguous items.

In phase 2, there was a meeting between ns two translators, ns translation expert e the speech-language professional (expert committee). The objective of this meeting foi ~ to compare a two distinctive translated versions e discuss a changes needed ao the preparation of a single version, called the synthesis version (SV), reflecting the consensus of ns committee. All decisions made in ~ this conference were documented in information in naquela report.

In phase 3, the backtranslations to be performed, definition that ns text that foi ~ written in the target language foi ~ translated again to the source language. Dois native earlier translators a partir de Spanish speaking countries, with notable understanding in Brazilian Portuguese, functioned individually in the production of two backtranslations (BT1 and BT2) of a simplified version. A translators responsible for the backtranslation procedure did no have access to any type of other item of details other than a text. A intention era to allow ns process the backtranslation to expose unexpected meanings and interpretations.

In phase 4, a methodologist gathered information from the 4 translators, responsible for T1, T2, BT1, and BT2, as well as listening to the speech-language specialist for guidance in relation to language development e assessment. This phase of the process aimed come promote the evaluation of ns translations and back-translations, in order to verify a equivalence between a initial translations and the último version of the application sheet of a test.

Regarding to ns evaluation the the cultural adaptations made, a semantic, idiomatic, experimental, e conceptual equivalences in the translation procedure were considered. A experts applied the grades (-1) not equivalent, (0) equivalent, e (1) very much indistinguishable to a test original version. Any item that received der (-1) no equivalent grade was translated again considering a experts’ suggestions. A experts committee guarantee that the test e the instructions para its application were understandable.

Ver mais: As 45 Melhores Series De Desenhos Animados Antigos, Os 23 Melhores Desenhos Animados Já Transmitidos

outcomes

Chart 1 presents a most relevant adaptations make to a TSA in relation to Brazilian Portuguese and Appendix A exposição the test último version in Brazilian Portuguese.