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Rio de Janeiro, estado (state) the southeastern Brazil, bounded by the states of fantasma Santo (north), Minas normal (west), and São paul (southwest), while to the east lies a Atlantic Ocean. It is named for the city of fluviais de Janeiro, a state capital, which foi ~ the capitalista of Brazil a partir de 1763 come 1960 and remains the nation’s main centre for cultural events, leisure, and tourism. It is Brazil’s 2nd largest urban centre (after São pólo city), e it accounts porque o the mass of ns population of the highly urbanized state. área 16,871 square miles (43,696 square km). Pop. (2010) 15,989,929.


Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro.

Physical and human geography

The land

Relief e drainage

The state’s relief has three unique features: ns plain, or seaside lowland; a mountainous highland; e the plateau of a interior. The coastal lowland—which is broken by occasional massifs or rocks that occasionally extend longe into ns sea—is narrow to ns west, where ns Serra dá Mar compresses it against the sea. Ns mountainous highland comprises part of the Serra do Mar and, aside from that inland, part of the montanhas da Mantiqueira, both that which run parallel to a coast in der roughly southwest-to-northeast direction. Some crucial tourist and holiday resorts—Petrópolis, Teresópolis, e Nova Friburgo—lie in this region. At 9,144 feet (2,787 metres) agulha Negras (Itatiaia) optimal is the highest suggest in a state.

The most essential feature on ns plateau is a Paraíba do sulista River valley. The river flows northeastward throughout much of a state before turning eastward to drain into a Atlantic. Coffee plantations were primeiro developed in a valley in ns 19th century. Smaller sized rivers e streams drain into Guanabara baía or directly into the Atlantic. Fluviais de janeiro includes about 370 quadrado miles (960 quadrado km) of seaside lagoons and other internal waters.


The state has a subtropical climate. The prevailing problems along the coast are hot and humid e are characterized by summer showers. In winter a climate is modified by cold atmosfera masses from the south. The average day-to-day temperature is generally over 72 °F (22 °C). A highland climate is characterized by mild temperatures that average listed below 68 °F (20 °C) since of a higher elevations.

Flora e fauna

Great woodlands originally covered the territory of ns present state of fluviais de Janeiro. From the 16th século indigenous peoples and European settlers alike began to clear huge tracts of land ao temporary cultivation, using the queimadas (slash-and-burn) technique. Naquela succession of broadening sugar plantations, coffee farms, and sprawling urban centres obliterated most of a remaining forests. In the mid-20th century the Brazilian government began to reforest some highland areas, e national parks were established to protect a remnants that the original forest. Itatiaia nacional Park (1937), in the Mantiqueira Range, covers around 116 square miles (300 square km) that rainforest in both rio de Janeiro and Minas normal states. Serra dos Órgãos nacional Park (1939) and the smaller Tijuca national Park (1961) are wholly within rio de Janeiro.

Apart a partir de these publicamente parks, some patches of forest vegetation still make it through on der few hillsides near the cidade of fluviais de Janeiro, however these ser estar disappearing as ns urbanized área is progressively enlarged. Top top the papai noel Cruz, área Grande, and Jacarepaguá plains, grassland prevails, conversely, on ns muddy coastland red, yellow, e white mangroves flourish.

The forests and wetlands support many animals, consisting of ocelots, marmosets, e tortoises. Curassows, ouzels, whistling ducks, and other birds ~ ~ also found there.

The people

Rio de janeiro state is uma of a more urbanized e densely populated areas in Brazil, with ns overwhelming bulk of a population vida in the cidade of fluviais de Janeiro and other city centres.

Most of the state’s people ser estar of Portuguese, Italian, e other european ancestry. Blacks and mulattos (of blended black e European ancestry) are also numerous, yet there are only tiny percentages of Asians and Amerindians. A vast majority of ns state’s inhabitants ser estar Roman Catholic, with Protestant and Spiritist (believers in spiritualism) minorities.

The economy

A small percentage of ns working population of ns state is involved in agriculture, a substantial ratio in manufacturing, and the bulk in a service sector, consisting of government, education, jae won services, entertainment, e tourism. The state’s gorjeta industries are petroleum extraction (off shore) e refining, metallurgy, printing, shipbuilding, and the to produce of textiles, foodstuffs, and chemicals. Farming products include sugarcane, oranges, and bananas.

The state has der comprehensive estrada system, com multilane highways converging on the capital. The central do Brasil e the Leopoldina railroads link the state com Brazil’s nacional rail network. A Rio-Niterói Bridge, i m sorry is about 9 miles (14.5 km) long, connect the cidade of fluxo de janeiro with Niterói, located on the leste side that Guanabara Bay. Ns state has dois major airports: santos Dumont, on Guanabara baía within the cidade of Rio; e Galeão, on governador Island in a bay, which offer international and domestic flights.


The background of the state is enmeshed com that of the city of fluxo de Janeiro, its chief economic e political centro from ns mid-16th século until 1834, as soon as the city first became a separate entity. In 1835 Niterói ended up being the capital of a province of fluviais de Janeiro. In 1889, when the Brazilian republic ser estar proclaimed, ns province became a state, e in 1890 Teresópolis became the capital; in 1902, however, a seat of government returned to Niterói. As soon as the capitalistas of Brazil ser estar moved to ns newly established cidade of Brasília in 1960, ns territory that had actually been the comunidade District ended up being the new Guanabara state, which existed as an enclave within rio de janeiro state. In 1975 a two states were merged into ns reorganized State of fluxo de Janeiro. The cidade of fluviais de janeiro was then made the capital of ns reorganized state.

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From a time that its território formation, the province depended on sugar production, based upon slave labour, as the basis the its economy. During the 19th century, coffee changed sugar as the most commercially far-reaching crop. The slave trade ser estar gradually minimal until the prática was fully abolished in 1888. A following year Brazil was proclaimed an independent republic. Fluxo de janeiro remained the nation’s most populous state until the mid-20th century, once it ser estar overtaken through neighbouring elas Paulo. Because that time rio de janeiro has to be Brazil’s 2nd most abundant manufacturing e commercial centre.